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Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

Premenstrual syndrome, also known as premenstrual tension syndrome, premenstrual illness, or cyclic syndrome (PMS), is a cyclic symptom complex that occurs in some women during the premenstrual days (2-10 days before menstruation). It is characterized by psychoemotional, vegetovascular, and metabolic-endocrine disorders, which have a negative impact on a woman's normal rhythm of life.

Premenstrual syndrome is experienced to some degree by every second woman over 30, and in women under 30, about one in five women experience PMS.

Most often, premenstrual syndrome is found in thin or emotionally unstable women who are more involved in intellectual activities.

PMS symptoms

Each woman suffering from PMS experiences a different set of symptoms, manifested in neuro-psychological, metabolic-endocrine, or vegetative-vascular disorders:

  • headache;
  • irritability, depression, tearfulness, aggressiveness, palpitation;
  • swollen and tender breasts, facial swelling, swelling of the legs and hands, sweating;
  • pain in the abdomen, lower back, pelvic organs, or heart area;
  • increased fatigue, insomnia, or, conversely, drowsiness;
  • mild weight gain, increased appetite;
  • heightened sensitivity to smell, changes in taste perception;
  • frequent and abundant urination, changes in bowel movements.

In some cases, premenstrual syndrome can lead to neurosis.

Approximately 20% of women are practically not prone to premenstrual syndrome or are inclined towards such a mild form that does not require medical attention.

It should be noted that PMS tends to worsen with age.


The most wide 4 forms of PMS:





There is also the so-called atypical form of PMS.

Neuro-psychic form is characterized by the following changes in the emotional background: weakness, tearfulness, depression and melancholy or, on the contrary, excessive and unprimed dramatization, aggression.

Edematous form is characterized by swelling and tenderness of the mammary glands, swelling of the face, legs and hands, and sweating.

The term "cephalgia" refers to a headache, accordingly, the cephalic form of PMS is characterized by severe headache, dizziness, nausea, and sometimes vomiting. In addition to these symptoms, some women complain of heart pain and a depressed psychological state.


With the crisis form of PMS (crisis cardinal change), women have adrenaline crises. They begin with a feeling of tightness under the chest and are accompanied by a significantly accelerated heartbeat, numbness and coldness of the hands. A distinctive feature of the crisis form is the fear of death which is greatly exacerbated in half of the women. It should be noted that the crisis form of PMS is the most difficult to tolerate and requires mandatory treatment.

Untreated neuropsychiatric, edematous, and cephalic forms develop as a result of the crisis form of PMS.

Causes of PMS

Scientists have not yet found a precise and singular cause for premenstrual syndrome (PMS). However, it is clear that a significant role in the development of the condition is played by hormonal imbalance. According to one of the theories regarding the origin of PMS, the disruption in the ratio of estrogen and progesterone hormones is the cause of the symptom complex.

Treatment of PMS

Treatment of PMS is carried out using medicinal and non-medicinal methods. Hormonal therapy with progesterone analog medications plays a leading role in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. For patients experiencing nervous and psychological symptoms, the use of sedatives is recommended. Symptomatic treatment of PMS may involve the use of pain relievers, diuretics, and antiallergic medications.

The main goal of pharmacotherapy for PMS is to alleviate symptoms present in nearly 80% of women.

In practice, PMS is a chronic condition with a long and cyclic course, but the use of certain medications, such as herbal remedies, psychotropics, antioxidants, microelements, and some others, will help to relieve symptoms and improve the woman's quality of life.

The components of preparations (Agnus Castus extract) inhibit the production of prolactin, which results in the normalization of many prolactin-mediated symptoms of PMS. The positive effects on various aspects of the pathogenesis of vegetovascular and psychopathological disorders in PMS, exhibited by substances present in phytopreparations containing Agnus Castus, justify its inclusion in comprehensive therapy. (Femimens)

The treatment course of PMS is usually quite lengthy, spanning over several consecutive menstrual cycles (3-6 months). In cases of recurrence or for preventive purposes, the therapy may be repeated after a certain period of time.

Inclusion of natural origin medications in the PMS treatment regimen promotes the regulation of blood supply, trophism, metabolism, and the functional state of the central nervous system (CNS).



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